On May 30, President Trump threatened new tariffs on all goods
imported from Mexico. Effective June 10, the U.S. would levy a 5%
tariff, increasing the rate by an additional 5% each month until reaching
a permanent rate of 25% by October. The president stated that tariffs
would only be lifted “if the illegal migration crisis is alleviated through
effective actions taken by Mexico.”
On June 7, after several days of negotiating with Mexican officials and
just three days before the tariffs were set to go into effect, President
Trump announced the tariffs would be “indefinitely suspended.”
These announcements came in the middle of the trade war with China,
which has been brewing since mid-2018. The U.S. and China have yet
to reach an agreement, with each side increasing tariffs on the other
in mid-May. On June 10, President Trump threatened to impose tariffs
on an additional $300 billion in goods from China if the country’s
president, Xi Jinping, does not meet with him as scheduled during the
G20 Summit in Japan on June 28 – 29.
A tariff is a tax levied on foreign imports. The tax is paid for by the
importers, not by the country exporting the goods. Importers must
decide whether they will absorb the cost of the tariffs or shift the cost
to the final consumer.
If the tariffs are paid by the importer, how is the exporting country
affected? Increasing cost decreases demand, directly impacting the
bottom line of the companies producing the goods and, ultimately,
the exporting country.
By The Numbers: U.S. Trade With Mexico And China
When it comes to the things we buy, China is the largest supplier
of goods imports, followed by Mexico. The two countries combined
imported $886 billion in goods in 2018.
Imports to the
Largest supplier of
2nd largest supplier of goods imports
|• Electrical machinery – $152 billion|
• Machinery –
• Furniture & bedding – $35 billion
• Toys & sports
equipment – $27 billion
• Plastics – $19 billion
| • Vehicles – $93 billion|
• Electrical machinery –
• Machinery – $63 billion
• Agricultural products – $26 billion
• Mineral fuels – $16 billion
|+59.7% from 2008|
+427% from 2001
|+60.5% from 2008|
+768% from 1993
3rd largest goods exports market
2nd largest goods exports
|• Aircraft – $18 billion|
• Machinery –
• Electrical machinery – $13 billion
• Optical & medical
• Vehicles – $9.4 billion
| • Machinery – $46 billion|
• Electrical machinery –
• Mineral fuels – $34 billion
• Vehicles – $22 billion
• Agricultural products –
• Plastics – $18 billion
|Export Growth||+72.6% from 2008|
+527% from 2001 (pre-WTO
|+75.2% from 2008|
+537% from 1993 (pre-NAFTA)
Sources: Office of the United States Trade Representative. “The People’s Republic of China: U.S.-China Trade Facts.” https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/china-mongoliataiwan/ peoples-republic-china. Accessed May 31, 2019. Office of the United States Trade Representative. “Mexico.” https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/americas/ mexico. Accessed May 31, 2019.
The announcement of tariffs on Mexico could have implications that
reach further than paying more for your margaritas and guacamole.
The U.S. paid $346.5 billion for imported goods from Mexico in 2018.
Most of the costs are ultimately passed on to American consumers.
Adding a 5% tariff as previously proposed would have meant
Americans would pay an additional $17 billion on those same items.
The U.S. has seen a spike in consumer prices in response to tariffs on China,
which began in September 2018. On May 13, the U.S. imposed tariffs on
an additional $200 billion in Chinese goods. The 140-page list of items
potentially affected includes a variety of consumer products, everything
from clothing and children’s toys to laptops and lawn mowers. So far, the
tariffs do not include pharmaceuticals and rare earth materials.
Additionally, a looming trade war with Mexico could negatively
affect U.S. jobs, especially in states close to the southern border.
Ray Perryman, president and CEO of economic analysis company
The Perryman Group, said tariffs on Mexican goods could impact
400,000 U.S. jobs, especially those involved in logistics of moving
goods between countries.
Reaching An Agreement
The announcement of potential tariffs could also affect how we trade
with Mexico in the future. The North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) was established in 1994 by the U.S., Canada and Mexico.
NAFTA progressively eliminated tariffs between the participating
countries, ultimately removing virtually all tariffs by 2008.
In November 2018, the three countries reached consensus on a new
act, the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). USMCA
was designed to create a more level playing field for U.S. workers,
strengthen the agricultural industry across North America and
address new issues related to technological advancements, including
digital trade and anticorruption. Like NAFTA, USMCA also requires
low tariffs on its participants.
While an agreement has been reached on the new act, a congressional
vote must still be taken on adopting USMCA, and NAFTA remains in
effect. If tariffs on Mexican goods were to go into effect in the future,
it could jeopardize the USMCA deal, according to some Republican
Markets responded to the uncertainty with both Mexico and China
with volatility. The S&P 500 ended May down more than 6% from
April highs, while the Dow ended down for the sixth week in a row on
The proposed tariffs have raised concerns about a potential
slowdown, not just in the U.S. but also globally. However, opinions are
mixed about whether a recession is in the works. Despite the tradewar-
related volatility in the markets, other news is generally positive.
Unemployment in the U.S. remains low, and earnings reports were
With continuing negotiations between the U.S. and its trading
partners, the economic implications remain to be seen. It is, however,
safe to say that tariffs may be part of the economic climate for the
1 Abby Phillip, et al. CNN Politics. May 31, 2019. “Trump erupts over immigration, threatening Mexico
with tariffs.” https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/30/politics/trump-mexico-tariffs-immigration/.
Accessed May 31, 2019.
2 David Choi. Business Insider. June 7, 2019. “Deal Reached: Trump says upcoming Mexico tariffs will
be ‘indefinitely suspended.’” https://www.businessinsider.com/trump-suspends-mexico-tariffs-dealreached2019-Accessed June 11, 2019.
3 Damian Paletta. The Washington Post. June 10, 2019. “Trump levels new tariff threat against China,
defends Mexico showdown.” https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2019/06/10/trump-levelsnew-
June 11, 2019.
4 Alicia Adamczyk. CNBC. May 31, 2019. “Avocados, beer and flat-screen TVs: How much Trump’s
Mexico tariffs could cost you.” https://www.cnbc.com/2019/05/31/how-much-trumps-mexicotariffs-
could-cost-you.html. Accessed June 3, 2019.
5 David Lawder and Eric Beech. Reuters. May 13, 2019. “Cellphones and laptops on latest USTR China
tariff list, drugs excluded.” https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trade-china-hearing/cellphonesand-
laptops-on-latest-ustr-china-tariff-list-drugs-excluded-idUSKCN1SJ2AZ. Accessed May 31, 2019.
6 Julián Aguilar. The Texas Tribune. May 31, 2019. “Trump’s tariffs could hurt Texas, U.S. economies
as much as Mexico’s, border leaders and analysts say.” https://www.texastribune.org/2019/05/31/
border-leaders-criticize-trumps-threat-tariffs-mexican-goods/. Accessed June 3, 2019.
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